GOSSER - Geological Disposal Safeguards and Security R&D Project in Finland : How We Prepare Ourselves for 2023 When Final Disposal Starts in Finland
Honkamaa, Tapani; Martikka, Elina; Moring, Mikael; Hack, Tapani; Okko, Olli; Hämäläinen, Marko (2016-07-24)
Final geological disposal of spent nuclear fuel is scheduled to start in Finland in 2023. To ascertain that necessary technical safeguards tools are available at that time, STUK, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland has set up a national R&D project GOSSER (Geological Disposal Safeguards and Security R&D). The main objective of GOSSER is the finalization of the national Finnish concept for safeguarding the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel. This concept and related R&D efforts are coordinated with the Finnish facilities, European Commission and the IAEA. Key task of GOSSER is to develop a robust, reliable, and accurate method to verify spent nuclear fuel prior to final disposal. The IAEA requires that spent fuel is verified at a partial defect level before transfer to “difficult to access”; however, there is no current method available that can reliably achieve that. The Finnish Support Programme to the IAEA Safeguards has researched the applicability of Passive Gamma Emission Tomography (PGET), and it will be the main candidate for further investigation. Combined with other methods, like gamma spectrometry and neutron measurements, it can be used to verify the correctness and completeness of the declared fuel at pin level. Another goal of GOSSER is to evaluate and, when necessary, develop safeguards methodologies for attaining knowledge of the verified nuclear material and to maintain it for future generations. This task may require different techniques from traditional C/S, geophysics, DIV and novel technologies, as well as methods from societal verification and long term data management. GOSSER will recognize the interfaces between safeguards and security and also safety. Security and safeguards both share the common objective: spent nuclear fuel is secured from both unlawful actions. The Finnish State System of Accountancy and Control (SSAC) obligation is to facilitate IAEA Safeguards in Finland and GOSSER will contribute towards fulfilling this obligation.